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دانلود کتاب معماری -  The Nature of Design دانلود کتاب معماری - The Nature of Design

Architectural Design - David W

THE
NATURE
of DESIGN
Ecology, Culture, and Human Intention
David W. Orr

Acknowledgments
For the past six years, ecological design has been more than an abstraction
for me. The essays that follow originated in physical and
intellectual proximity to an ecological design project on the campus
of Oberlin College described in chapter 14. What began as a fairly
straightforward design and construction project became a crash
course in architecture, engineering, materials analysis, ecological engineering,
landscape ecology, energy analysis, philosophy, institutional
politics, and fund-raising. During that time it was my privilege to
work with some of the most remarkable designers of our time. To all
of the participants in that project I owe a large debt: Ray Anderson,
David Austin, Bill Browning, Kevin Burke, Leo Evans, Carol Franklin,
Chris Hays, Mark Hoberecht, Amory Lovins, John Lyle, Bill McDonough,
Dave Nelson, Ron Perkins, Russell Perry, Mark Rusitsky, Bob
Scheren, Michael Shaw, Stephen Strong, John Todd, Martin Troutman,
and Adrian Tuluca. They persevered on a tough project. I owe a
large debt to friends and colleagues here and elsewhere particularly
David Benzing, Peter Buckley, Fritjof Capra, Tony Cortese, Nancy
Dye, Karen Florini, Dierdre Holmes, Jon Jensen, Adam Lewis, Peter
Lewis, Al MacKay, Brad Masi, Gene Matthews, Carl McDaniel, John
Petersen, John Powers, Michael Stranahan, Paige Wiegman, and
Cheryl Wolfe. I thank David Ehrenfeld and Gary Meffe, both for their
editorial skill that improved many of these essays and for their encouragement.
I am grateful to Island Press for permission to include
“The Ecology of Giving and Consuming” from Consuming Desires, ed.
Roger Rosenblatt (1999); to MIT Press for permission to include
“Loving Children” from Children and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural,
and Evolutionary Investigations, ed. Peter H. Kahn Jr. and
Stephen R. Kellert (2002); to Wild Earth for permission to include
“The Great Wilderness Debate, Again”; and to Blackwell Science for
permission to reprint material from Conservation Biology included
here in chapters 3–17. Finally, this book is dedicated to my brother
Wilson, with gratitude and love.
viii A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S
Contents
I. The Problem of Ecological Design
1. Introduction: The Design of Culture and the
Culture of Design 3
2. Human Ecology as a Problem of Ecological Design 13
II. Pathologies and Barriers
3. Slow Knowledge 35
4. Speed 43
5. Verbicide 53
6. Technological Fundamentalism 61
7. Ideasclerosis 68
8. Ideasclerosis, Continued 75
III. The Politics of Design
19. None So Blind: The Problem of Ecological Denial
(with David Ehrenfeld) 85
10. Twine in the Baler 91
11. Conservation and Conservatism 97
12. A Politics Worthy of the Name 104
13. The Limits of Nature and the Educational Nature
of Limits 118
IV. Design as Pedagogy
14. Architecture and Education 127
15. The Architecture of Science 135
16. 2020: A Proposal 143
17. Education, Careers, and Callings 152
18. A Higher Order of Heroism 160
V. Charity, Wildness, and Children
19. The Ecology of Giving and Consuming 171
20. The Great Wilderness Debate, Again 187
21. Loving Children: The Political Economy of Design 198
Bibliography 221
Index 233

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